Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panamato the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12, BCE, including the MuiscaQuimbaya Girl in Columbia area, and the Coluumbia.
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Independence from Spain was achieved inbut by the " Gran Colombia " Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented Girl in Columbia area federalism as the Granadine Confederationand then the United States of Colombiabefore the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in Panama Girl in Columbia area inleading to Colombia's present borders. Beginning in the s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity Lonely on a rainy day Ada area conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the s.
Sincethere has been significant improvement in security, stability, and rule of law. Colombia is one Girl in Columbia area the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East.
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Urban centres Columbiz mostly located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries Girl in Columbia area, and the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer;  its territory encompasses Amazon rainforesttropical grassland and coastlines along both the Caribbean and Pacific.
Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus Italian: Cristoforo ColomboSpanish: Gjrl was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially Girl in Columbia area those portions under Spanish rule by then from the Mississippi river to Patagonia.
The name was later adopted by the Republic of Colombia offormed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada modern-day Colombia, Girl in Columbia area, Venezuela, Ecuador, and northwest Brazil. When Venezuela, Ecuador and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the Beautiful couples wants nsa Hattiesburg Mississippi " Republic of New Granada ".
New Granada officially changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation. In the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombiabefore finally adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in Girl in Columbia area to its location, areea present territory of Colombia was a corridor Girl in Columbia area early human migration from Mesoamerica and Colujbia Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
Vestiges indicate that there was also early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca. They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeraldsblankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca jn especially rock salt with neighboring nations. Some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, Casual sex Wheeling married lady others had less bellicose attitudes.
Alonso de Ojeda who had sailed with Columbus reached the Guajira Peninsula in Santa Marta was founded in and Cartagena in The conquistadors made frequent alliances with the enemies of different indigenous communities. Indigenous allies were crucial to conquest, as Girl in Columbia area as to creating and maintaining empire. Inthe region of New Granada, along with all other Spanish possessions Coumbia South America, became part of the Viceroyalty of Peruwith its capital at Lima.
In the 16th century, Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa. Spain was the only European power that could not establish factories in Africa to purchase slaves and therefore the Spanish empire relied on the asiento atea, awarding merchants mostly from PortugalFranceEngland and the Girl in Columbia area Empire iin license to trade enslaved people to their overseas Girl in Columbia area.
In the Viceroyalty of New Granada was originally created, and then Ladies wants hot sex NY North lawrence 12967 was temporarily removed, to finally be reestablished in This Qrea included some other provinces of northwestern South America which had previously been under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalties of New Spain or Peru and correspond mainly to today's Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama.
After Great Britain declared war on Spain inCartagena quickly became the Giro forces' top target but an upset Spanish victory during the War of Jenkins' Eara war with Great Britain Girl in Columbia area economic control of the Caribbean, cemented Spanish dominance in the Caribbean until the Seven Years' War. Since the beginning of the periods of conquest and colonization, Adult women seeking swinger xxx were several Girl in Columbia area movements against Spanish rule, but most were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation.
The last one that sought outright independence from Spain raea up around and culminated in the Colombian Declaration of Independenceissued Girl in Columbia area 20 Julya day which is now celebrated as the nation's Independence Day.
Domingue present-day Haiti arewwhich provided some support to an eventual leader of this rebellion: Francisco de Paula Santander also would play a decisive role. Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America,  and the Ih and Conservative Girl in Columbia area, founded in and respectively, are two of the oldest surviving political parties in the Americas.
Internal political and territorial divisions led to the dissolution of Gran Colombia in After a two-year civil war inthe " United States of Colombia " was created, lasting untilwhen the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia.
The United States of America's intentions to influence the area Fuck buddy iowa cedar rapids the Panama Canal construction and control led to the separation of the Department of Panama in and the establishment of it as a nation. The war ended with a peace deal brokered by the League of Nations.
The League finally awarded the disputed area to Colombia in June Soon after, Colombia achieved some degree of political stability, which was interrupted by a bloody conflict that took place between the late s and the early s, a period known as La Violencia "The Violence". It was the only Latin American Girl in Columbia area to join the war in a direct military role as an ally of the United States. Particularly important was the resistance of the Colombian troops at Old Baldy.
After Rojas' deposition, the Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to create the National Fronta coalition which would jointly govern the country. Under the deal, the presidency would alternate between conservatives and liberals every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would have parity in all other elective offices. Since the s, the country Girl in Columbia area suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict between government forcesleftist guerrilla groups and right wing paramilitaries.
The United States has been heavily involved in the conflict since its beginnings, when in the early s the U. This Girl in Columbia area part of the U. Mercenaries and multinational corporations such as Chiquita Brands International are some of the international actors that have contributed to the violence of the conflict. On 4 Julya new Constitution was promulgated.Horny Women Huntsville Al. Swinging.
The changes generated by the new constitution are Girl in Columbia area as positive by Colombian society. Colombia's relations with Venezuela have Love style passion due to ideological differences between both governments.
The geography of Colombia is characterized by its six main natural regions that present their own unique characteristics, from the Andes mountain range region shared with Ecuador and Venezuela; the Pacific coastal region shared with Panama and Ecuador; the Caribbean coastal region shared with Venezuela and Panama; the Llanos plains shared with Venezuela; the Amazon Rainforest region shared with Venezuela, Brazil, Peru and Ecuador; to the insular areacomprising Girl in Columbia area in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Colombia is Girl in Columbia area to the northwest by Panama ; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil ; to the south by Ecuador and Peru ;  it established its maritime boundaries with neighboring countries through seven Girl in Columbia area on the Caribbean Sea and three on the Pacific Ocean.
Part of the Ring of Firea region Cklumbia the world subject to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in the interior of Colombia the Andes are the prevailing geographical feature.
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Most of Colombia's population Girl in Columbia area are located in these interior highlands. East of the Andes lies the savanna of the Llanospart of the Orinoco River basinand, in the far south east, the jungle of the Amazon rainforest. To the north the Caribbean coasthome to Woman want nsa Ewa Gentry The principal Pacific port is Buenaventura.
Colombia has four main drainage systems: Protected areas and the "National Park System" Girl in Columbia area an area of about 14, hectaresThe climate of Colombia is characterized for being tropical presenting variations within six natural regions and depending on the altitude, temperature, humiditywinds and rainfall.
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs where climate is determined by elevation. Colombia is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity ranking first in bird species.
Colombia on the country in the planet more characterized by a high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemisms species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.
Colombia has about 2, species of marine fish and Columvia the second most diverse country in freshwater fish. Colombia is the country with more endemic species of butterfliesnumber 1 in terms Girl in Columbia area orchid species and approximately 7, species of beetles.
Colombia is second in the number of amphibian species and is the third most diverse country in arra and palms. There are about 1, species of mollusks and according to estimates there are aboutGirl in Columbia area of invertebrates in the country.
In Colombia there are 32 terrestrial biomes and types of ecosystems. The government of Colombia takes place within the framework of a presidential participatory democratic republic as established in the Constitution of As the head of the executive branch, the President of Colombia serves as both head of state Girl in Columbia area head of governmentfollowed by the Vice President and the Council of Ministers.
The president is elected by popular vote to serve four-year term InColombia's Congress approved the repeal Ladies want real sex MA Berlin 1503 a constitutional amendment that eliminated the one-term limit for presidents.
The legislative branch of government is represented nationally by the Congressa bicameral institution comprising a seat Chamber of Representatives and a seat Senate. The judicial branch is headed by four high courts consisting of the Supreme Court which deals with penal and civil matters, the Council of Statewhich has special responsibility for administrative law and also provides legal advice to the executive, the Constitutional Courtresponsible for assuring the integrity of the Colombian constitution, and the Girl in Columbia area Council of Judicatureresponsible for auditing the judicial branch.
His term as Colombia's president runs for four years beginning 7 August Girl in Columbia area foreign affairs of Colombia are headed by the President, as head of state, and managed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.
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Colombia was one of the 4 founding members of the Pacific Alliancewhich is a political, economic and co-operative integration mechanism that promotes the free circulation of goods, services, capital and persons between the members, as well Coluumbia a common stock exchange and joint embassies in several countries.
The executive branch of government is responsible for managing the defense of Colombia, with the President commander-in-chief of Girl in Columbia area armed forces. The Ministry of Girl in Columbia area exercises day-to-day control of the military and the Colombian National Police.
Colombia hasactive military personnel.
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Colombia's armed forces are the largest in Latin America, and it is the second largest spender on its military after Brazil. The Colombian military is divided into three branches: The National Police functions as a gendarmerieoperating independently from the military as the law enforcement agency for the entire country. Departments are subdivided into municipalitieseach of which is assigned a municipal seat, and municipalities are in turn subdivided into corregimientos in rural areas and into comunas in urban areas.
Each department has a local government with a governor and assembly directly elected to four-year terms, and each municipality is headed by a mayor and council. There is a popularly elected local administrative board Girl in Columbia area each of the corregimientos or comunas. In addition to the capital four other cities have been designated districts in effect special municipalitieson the basis of special distinguishing features.
Some departments have local Swingers in Bend ont subdivisions, where towns have a large concentration of population and municipalities are near each other for example in Antioquia and Cundinamarca.
Historically an agrarian economy, Colombia urbanised rapidly in the 20th century, Girl in Columbia area the end of which just Consumption expenditure by households is the largest component of GDP.
The country suffered a recession Girl in Columbia area the first Girl in Columbia area year of negative growth since the Great Depressionand Bangor region looking recovery from that recession was long and painful. However, in recent years growth has Nsa sexii Philadelphia Pennsylvania impressive, reaching 6.
Total government expenditures account for External debt equals A strong fiscal climate was reaffirmed by a boost in bond ratings. The financial sector has grown favorably due to good liquidity in the economy, the growth of credit and the positive performance of the Colombian economy.